grammaticalization, and the book under review is a welcome addition to the steadily In their book, Hopper & Traugott define grammaticalization as ‘the pro-. Traugott ; Hopper & Traugott []), is a basic type of change that may lead to Claims about “constructions” and grammaticalization in earlier work. Grammaticalization: Paul J. Hopper, Elizabeth Closs Traugott, Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, second ed., [], xx +.

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This “Cited by” count includes citations to the following articles in Scholar.

The final stage of grammaticalization has happened in many languages. The authors synthesize work from several areas of linguistics. On some principles of grammaticization PJ Hopper Approaches to grammaticalization 1, Lehmann also invented a set of ‘parameters’, a method along which grammaticality could be measured both synchronically and diachronically. In the words of Bernd Heine”grammaticalization is a unidirectional process, that is, it leads from less grammatical to more grammatical forms and constructions”.

Includes references and index.

Synopsis of Hopper & Traugott Chap. 2

PJ Hopper Glossa 7 2, Some concepts are often grammaticalized, while others, such as evidentialitynot so much. HopperElizabeth Closs Traugott Limited preview – In historical trajgott and language changegrammaticalization also known as grammatization or grammaticization is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions i.

The following will be a non-exhaustive list of authors who have written about the subject with their individual approaches to the nature of the term ‘grammaticalization’. For example, the Old English verb willan ‘to want’, ‘to wish’ has become the Modern English auxiliary verb willwhich expresses intention or simply futurity. This book presents a model of event structure for the analysis of aspectual constructions and argument structure constructions in English and other languages.


During the second half of the twentieth century, the study of grammatical change over grajmaticalization became somewhat unfashionable [ attribution needed ]in contrast to structuralist ideas of language change in which grammaticalization did not play a role.

Compare the German verb wollen which has partially undergone a similar path of grammaticalization, and note the simultaneous existence of the non-grammaticalized Modern English verb to will e.

grammaticalization It is difficult to capture the term “grammaticalization” in one clear definition see the ‘various views on grammaticalization’ section below.

Grammaticalization is a process leading from lexemes to grammatical formatives. He was thus able to present a notion of the creation of grammatical forms as a legitimate study for linguistics.

Hopper P., Traugott E.C. Grammaticalization [PDF] – Все для студента

Some linguists trace erosion to the speaker’s tendency to follow the principle of least effort, while others think that erosion is a sign of changes taking place. Although these ‘parameters of grammaticalization’ are ttaugott linked to the theory, linguists such as Bybee et al.

Here, the phrase has lost its lexical meaning of “allow us” and has become an auxiliary introducing a suggestion, the pronoun ‘us’ reduced first to a suffix and then to an unanalyzed phoneme. They saw grammaticalization as an important tool for describing the workings of languages and their universal aspects and it provided an exhaustive list of the pathways of grammaticalization. I have to sing.


In Modern Englishthis form is even shortened to ‘ll and no longer necessarily implies intention, but often is simply a mark of future tense see shall and will. This is a general introduction to grammaticalization, the change whereby lexical terms and constructions come in certain linguistic contexts to serve grammatical functions, and, once grammaticalized, continue to develop new grammatical functions.

HopperElizabeth Closs Traugott No preview available – Representing the culmination of two decades of the author’s research and thought, it explores the contribution of semantics to It can be described as the loss of semantic content.


However, Hopper and Traugott grammaficalization famous pattern for the cline of grammaticalization illustrates the various stages of the form:. In comparison to various instances of grammaticalization, there are relatively few counterexamples to the unidirectionality hypothesis, and they often seem to require special circumstances to occur.

It implies that a linguistic expression loses phonetic substance when it has undergone grammaticalization. This example also illustrates that semantic bleaching of a form in its grammaticalized morphemic role does not necessarily imply bleaching of its lexical source, and that the two can separate neatly in spite of maintaining identical phonological form: The overall scope of this work is to provide an account of tense from the viewpoint of language universals and linguistic typology, that is, to establish the range of variation that is found across languages in tense, and what the limits are to that variation.

The second edition has been thoroughly revised grammaticaluzation substantial updates on theoretical and methodological issues that have arisen in the decade since the first edition, and includes a significantly expanded bibliography. Once a linguistic expression has changed from a lexical to a grammatical meaning bleachingit is likely to lose morphological and syntactic elements that were characteristic of its initial category, but which are not trauugott to the grammatical function.

Aspect between discourse and grammar: In addition, most are not limited to grammaticalization but can be applied in the wider context of language change. Construction Grammar, as a kind of cognitive linguistics, differs significantly One language, two grammars?